Timeline of Buddhism

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This Timeline of Buddhism provides dates for some of the key events in the development of Buddhism through the 19th century. It should not be considered to be complete. It is provided as a general reference only.

Timeline for development of Buddhist traditions

Timeline: Development and propagation of Buddhist traditions (ca. 450 BCE – ca. 1300 CE)

  450 BCE[note 1] 250 BCE 100 CE 500 CE 700 CE 800 CE 1200 CE[note 2]

 

Oral and textual traditions of India

 

 

 

 

Oral tradition Early Buddhist Texts Mahayana sutras Tantras
(aka Vajrayana)

 

 

 

 

India

Early
Sangha

Early Buddhist schools

 

 

Southeast Asia

 

 

Theravada

 

Central Asia & Tarim Basin

 

Greco-Buddhism

 

 

Silk Road Buddhism

 

East Asia

 

Transmissions of Early Buddhist Texts and Mahayana Sutras via the silk road to northern China, and via the ocean to Vietnam and southern China.

East Asian Madhyamaka
East Asian Yogacara

East Asian Tantra (Tangmi), Shingon

Huayan, Hwaeom, Kegon

Chan

 

Thiền, Seon
  Zen
Tiantai / Pure Land

 

Tendai

 

 

Nichiren

 

Jōdo-shū

 

Tibet/Himalayas

 

Tibetan Buddhism

 

  450 BCE 250 BCE 100 CE 500 CE 700 CE 800 CE 1200 CE
  Legend:   = Theravada   = East Asian Buddhism   = Tibetan Buddhism   = Various / syncretic


Dates

6th–5th century BCE

Date Event
c. 563 BCE or c. 480 BCE The Birth of Siddhartha Gautama. The approximate date of Gautama Buddha's birth and death are uncertain. Most historians in the early 20th century dated his lifetime as circa 563 BCE to 483 BCE.[2][3] More recently his death is dated later, between 411 and 400 BCE, while at a symposium on this question held in 1988, the majority of those who presented definite opinions gave dates within 20 years either side of 400 BCE for the Buddha's death.[2][4]{{refn|group=note|name="dating"|
c. 413—345 BCE Shishunaga, a minister of the ruling Hiranyaka dynasty of Magadha, is placed on the throne and begins the Shishunaga dynasty, after the sitting king is deposed by the people.

4th century BCE

Date Event
383 BCE or c. 330 BCE[5] The Second Buddhist council is convened by Kalasoka of the Shishunaga dynasty and held in Vaishali. The Sangha divides into the Sthaviravadins and the Mahasanghikas led by the monk Mahādeva, primarily over the question of addition or subtraction of rules from the Vinaya]].[6]
345–321 BCE The Nanda Empire briefly predominates in Magadha over the Shishunagas.[7]
326 BCE Alexander the Great reaches North West India. The Indo-Greek kingdoms that arise in the aftermath have a large influence upon the development of Buddhism.[8]
c. 321 – c. 297 BCE The reign of Chandragupta Maurya, grandfather of Asoka, who subdues the Nanda Dynasty by c. 320 BCE, and gradually conquers much of northern India.[9]

3rd century BCE

Date Event
c. 250 BCE Third Buddhist council, convened by Ashoka and chaired by Moggaliputta-Tissa, compiles the Kathavatthu to refute the heretical views and theories held by some Buddhist sects. Edicts of Ashoka in the Maurya Empire in support of Buddhism.
c. 250 BCE Ashoka sends various Buddhist missionaries to faraway countries, as far as China, mainland Southeast Asia and the Malay kingdoms in the east and the Hellenistic kingdoms in the west, in order to make Buddhism known to them.
c. 250 BCE First-fully developed examples of Kharosthi script in the inscriptions at Shahbazgarhi and Mānsehrā in Gandhara.
c. 250 BCE Indian traders regularly visit ports in the Arabian Peninsula, explaining the prevalence of place names in the region with Indian or Buddhist origin; e.g., bahar (from Sanskrit vihara (a Buddhist monastery). Ashokan emissary monks bring Buddhism to Suvarnabhumi, the location of which is disputed. The Dipavamsa says it was a Mon seafaring settlement in present-day Burma.[citation needed]
c. 220 BCE Theravada is officially introduced to Sri Lanka by the Mahinda, son of Ashoka, during the reign of Devanampiya Tissa of Anuradhapura.

2nd century BCE

Date Event
185 BCE General Pushyamitra Shunga overthrows the Maurya Empire and establishes the Shunga Empire, apparently starting a wave of persecution against Buddhism.
180 BCE Demetrius I of Bactria invades India as far as Pataliputra and establishes the Indo-Greek Kingdom (180–10 BCE), under which Buddhism flourishes.
165–130 BCE Reign of the Indo-Greek king Menander I, who converts to Buddhism under the sage Nagasena according to the account of the Milinda Panha.
121 BCE The Chinese Emperor Han Wudi (156–87 BCE) receives two golden statues of the Buddha, according to inscriptions in the Mogao Caves, Dunhuang.

1st century BCE

Date Event
c. 55 BCE The Indo-Greek governor Theodorus enshrines relics of the Buddha, dedicating them to the deified "Lord Shakyamuni."
29 BCE According to the Sinhalese chronicles, the Pali Canon is written down in the reign of King Vaṭṭagamiṇi (29–17 BCE)[10]
2 BCE The Hou Hanshu records the visit in 2 BCE of Yuezhi envoys to the Chinese capital, who give oral teachings on Buddhist sutras.[11]

1st century

Date Event
67 Liu Ying's sponsorship of Buddhism is the first documented case of Buddhist practices in China.
67 Buddhism comes to China with the two monks Kasyapa and Dharmaraksha.
68 Buddhism is officially established in China with the founding of the White Horse Temple.
78 Ban Chao, a Chinese General, subdues the Buddhist Kingdom of Khotan.
c. 78–101 According to Mahayana tradition, the Fourth Buddhist council takes place under Kushana king Kanishka's reign, near Jalandar, India.

2nd century

Date Event
116 The Kushans, under Kanishka, establish a kingdom centered on Kashgar, also taking control of Khotan and Yarkand in the Tarim Basin.
148 An Shigao, a Parthian prince and Buddhist monk, arrives in China and proceeds to make the first translations of Theravada texts into Chinese.
c. 150-250 Indian and Central Asian Buddhists travel to Vietnam.
178 The Kushan monk Lokaksema travels to the Chinese capital of Loyang and becomes the first known translator of Mahayana texts into Chinese.

3rd century

Date Event
c. 250 Use of Kharoṣṭhī script in Gandhara stops.
c. 250-350 Kharoṣṭhī script is used in the southern Silk Road cities of Khotan and Niya.
296 The earliest surviving Chinese Buddhist manuscript dates from this year (Zhu Fo Yao Ji Jing, discovered in Dalian, late 2005).

4th century

Date Event
320–467 The University at Nalanda grows to support 3,000–10,000 monks.
372 The monk Sundo (順道, or Shundao in Chinese) was sent by Fu Jian (337–385) (苻堅) of Former Qin to the court of the King Sosurim of Goguryeo, in modern day Korea.[12] Subsequently, paper making was established in Korea.
384 The Indian monk Marananta arrived in Baekje, in modern day Korea, and the royal family received the strain of Buddhism he brought. King Asin of Baekje proclaimed, "people should believe in Buddhism and seek happiness."[12]
399–414 Fa Xian travels from China to India, then returns to translate Buddhist works into Chinese.

5th century

Date Event
c. 5th century The kingdom of Funan (centered in modern Cambodia) begins to advocate Buddhism in a departure from Hinduism. Earliest evidence of Buddhism in Myanmar (Pali inscriptions). Earliest evidence of Buddhism in Indonesian (statues). Earliest reinterpretations of Pali texts. The stupa at Dambulla (Sri Lanka) is constructed.
402 At the request of Yao Xing, Kumarajiva travels to Chang'an and translates many Buddhist texts into Chinese.
403 In China, Hui Yuan argues that Buddhist monks should be exempt from bowing to the emperor.
405 Yao Xing honours Kumarajiva.
425 Buddhism reaches Sumatra.
464 Buddhabhadra reaches China to preach Buddhism.
485 Five monks from Gandhara travel to the country of Fusang (Japan, or possibly the American continent), where they introduce Buddhism.
495 The Shaolin temple is built in the name of Buddhabhadra, by edict of emperor Wei Xiao Wen.[13][14]

6th century

Date Event
527 Bodhidharma settles into the Shaolin monastery in Henan province of China.[15]
531–579 Reign of the Zoroastrian king, Khosrau I of Persia, who orders the translation of Jataka stories into Persian.
538 or 552 Buddhism is introduced to Japan via Baekje (Korea), according to Nihonshoki; some scholars place this event in 538.
c. 575 Zen adherents enter Vietnam from China.

7th century

Date Event
607 A Japanese imperial envoy is dispatched to Sui, China to obtain copies of sutras.
616–634 Jingwan begins carving sutras onto stone at Fangshan, Yuzhou, 75 km southwest of modern-day Beijing.[16]
617–649 Reign of Songtsen Gampo of Tibet, who is traditionally held to be the first Tibetan King to promote the bringing of Buddhism to Tibet.[17]
627–645 Xuanzang travels to India, noting the persecution of Buddhists by Sasanka (king of Gauda, a state in northwest Bengal) before returning to Chang'an in China to translate Buddhist scriptures.
c. 650 End of sporadic Buddhist rule in the Sindh.
671 Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Yi Jing visits Palembang, capital of the partly Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, and reports over 1000 Buddhist monks in residence.
671 Uisang returns to Korea after studying Chinese Huayan Buddhism and founds the Hwaeom school.

8th century

Date Event
c. 8th century Buddhist Jataka stories are translated into Syriac and Arabic as Kalilag and Damnag. An account of Buddha's life is translated into Greek by John of Damascus and widely circulated among Christians as the story of Barlaam and Josaphat. By the 14th century, this story of Josaphat becomes so popular that he is made a Catholic saint.
736 Huayan is transmitted to Japan via Korea, when Rōben invites the Korean Hwaeom monk Simsang to lecture, and formally founds Japan's Kegon tradition in the Tōdai-ji temple.
743–754 The Chinese monk Jianzhen attempts to reach Japan eleven times, succeeding in 754 to establish the Japanese Ritsu school, which specialises in the vinaya (monastic rules).
760–830 Construction is begun on Borobodur, the famous Indonesian Buddhist structure. It is completed as a Buddhist monument in 830, after about 50 years of work.

9th century

Date Event
804 Under the reign of Emperor Kanmu of Japan, a fleet of four ships sets sail for mainland China. Of the two ships that arrive, one carries the monk Kūkai—recently ordained by the Japanese government as a Bhikkhu—who absorbs Vajrayana teachings in Chang'an and returns to Japan to found the Japanese Shingon school. The other ship carries the monk Saichō, who returns to Japan to found the Japanese Tendai school, partly based upon the Chinese Tiantai tradition.
838 to 841 Langdarma rules in Tibet, and persecutes Buddhism
838–847 Ennin, a priest of the Tendai school, travels in China for nine years. He reaches both the famous Buddhist mountain of Wutaishan and the Chinese capital, Chang'an, keeping a detailed diary that is a primary source for this period of Chinese history, including the Buddhist persecution.
841–846 Emperor Wuzong of the Tang Dynasty (given name: Li Yan) reigns in China; he is one of three Chinese emperors to prohibit Buddhism. From 843-845, Wuzong carries out the Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution, permanently weakening the institutional structure of Buddhism in China.
859 The Caodong school of Zen is founded by Dongshan Liangjie and his disciples in southern China.

10th century

Date Event
c. 10th century Buddhist temple construction commences at Bagan, Myanmar.
c. 10th century In Tibet, a strong Buddhist revival is begun.
971 Chinese Song Dynasty commissions Chengdu woodcarvers to carve the entire Buddhist canon for printing. Work is completed in 983; 130,000 blocks are produced, in total.
911 A printed copy of the Song Dynasty Buddhist canon arrives in Korea, impressing the government.

11th century

Date Event
c. 11th century Marpa, Konchog Gyalpo, Atisha, and others introduce the Sarma lineages into Tibet.
1009 Vietnam's Lý Dynasty begins, which is partly brought about by an alliance with the Buddhist monkhood. Ly emperors patronize Mahayana Buddhism, in addition to traditional spirits.
1010 Korea begins carving its own woodblock print edition of the Buddhist canon. No completion date is known; the canon is continuously expanded, with the arrival of new texts from China.
1017 In Southeast Asia, and especially in Sri Lanka, the Bhikkhuni (Buddhist nuns) Order dies out due to invasions. The bhikkhu line in Sri Lanka is later revived with bhikkhus from Burma.
1025 Srivijaya, a Buddhist kingdom based in Sumatra, is raided by the Chola empire of southern India; it survives, but declines in importance. Shortly after the raid, the centre of the kingdom moves northward from Palembang to Jambi-Melayu.
1056 King Anawrahta of Pagan Kingdom converts to Theravada Buddhism.
1057 Anawrahta captures Thaton Lower Burma, strengthening Theravada Buddhism in the country.
1063 A copy of the Khitans' printed canon arrives in Korea from mainland China.
1070 Bhikkhus from Pagan arrive in Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka to reinstate the Theravada ordination line.
1084–1112 In Myanmar, King Kyansittha reigns. He completes the building of the Shwezigon Pagoda, a shrine for relics of the Buddha, including a tooth brought from Sri Lanka. Various inscriptions refer to him as an incarnation of Vishnu, a chakravartin, a bodhisattva, and dharmaraja.

12th century

Date Event
1100–1125 Huizong reigns during the Chinese Song Dynasty and outlaws Buddhism to promote the Dao. He is one of three Chinese emperors to have prohibited Buddhism.
1133–1212 Hōnen establishes Pure Land Buddhism as an independent sect in Japan.
1164 Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka destroyed by foreign invasion. With the guidance of two forest monks - Ven. Mahākassapa Thera and Ven. Sāriputta Thera, Parakramabahu I reunites all bhikkhus in Sri Lanka into the Mahavihara sect.
1171 Anawrahta of Pagan upon request of King Vijayabahu I of Ceylon sends monks and scriptures to restart Buddhism in the island kingdom.
1181 The self-styled bodhisattva Jayavarman VII, a devout follower of Mahayana Buddhism (though he also patronised Hinduism), assumes control of the Khmer kingdom. He constructs the Bayon, the most prominent Buddhist structure in the Angkor temple complex. This sets the stage for the later conversion of the Khmer people to Theravada Buddhism.
1190 King Sithu II of Pagan realigns Burmese Buddhism with the Mahavihara school of Ceylon.

13th century

Date Event
c. 1200 The great Buddhist educational centre at Nalanda, India, (the origin of Buddhism) where various subjects were taught subjects such as Buddhism, Logic, Philosophy, Law, Medicine, Grammar, Yoga, Mathematics, Alchemy, and Astrology, is sacked, looted and burnt by Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji.
1222 Birth of Nichiren Daishonin (1222–1282), the Japanese founder of Nichiren Buddhism.
1227 Dogen Zenji takes the Caodong school of Zen from China to Japan as the Sōtō sect.
1236 Bhikkhus from Kañcipuram, India, arrive in Sri Lanka to revive the Theravada ordination line.
1238 The Thai Kingdom of Sukhothai is established, with Theravada Buddhism as the state religion.
1244 Eiheiji Soto Zen Temple and Monastery are established by Dogen Zenji.
c. 1250 Theravada overtakes Mahayana—previously practised alongside Hinduism—as the dominant form of Buddhism in Cambodia; Sri Lanka is an influence in this change.
1260–1270 Kublai Khan makes the Buddhism (especially the Tibetan Buddhism) the de facto state religion of the Yuan dynasty, establishing the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs and appointing Sakya Imperial Preceptors.
1279–1298 Sukhothai's third and most famous ruler, Ram Khamhaeng (Rama the Bold), reigns and makes vassals of Laos, much of modern Thailand, Pegu (Burma), and parts of the Malay Peninsula, thus giving rise to Sukhothai artistic tradition. After Ram Khamhaeng's death, Sukhothai loses control of its territories as its vassals become independent.
1285 Arghun makes the Ilkhanate a Buddhist state.
1287 The Pagan Empire, the largest Theravada kingdom of Southeast Asia, falls due to Mongol invasions.
1295 Mongol leader Ghazan Khan is converted to Islam, ending a line of Tantric Buddhist leaders.

14th century

Date Event
c. 1300 In Persia, the historian Rashid-al-Din Hamadani records some eleven Buddhist texts circulating in Arabic translation, amongst which the Sukhavati-vyuha and Karanda-vyuha Sutras are recognizable. Portions of the Samyutta and Anguttara-Nikayas, along with parts of the Maitreya-vyakarana, are identified in this collection.
1305–1316 Buddhists in Persia attempt to convert Uldjaitu Khan.
1312 In the Mahayana tradition during the 13th century, the Japanese Mugai Nyodai became the first female abbess and thus the first ordained female Zen master.[18]
1321 Sojiji Soto Zen Temple and Monastery established by Keizan Zenji.
1351 In Thailand, U Thong, possibly the son of a Chinese merchant family, establishes Ayutthaya as his capital and takes the name of Ramathibodi.
1391–1474 Gyalwa Gendun Drubpa, first Dalai Lama of Tibet.

15th century

Date Event
1405–1431 The Chinese eunuch admiral Zheng He makes seven voyages in this period, through southeast Asia, India, the Persian Gulf, East Africa, and Egypt. At the time, Buddhism is well-established in China, so visited peoples may have had exposure to Chinese Buddhism.

16th century

Date Event
1578 Altan Khan of the Tümed gives the title of Dalai Lama to Sonam Gyatso (later known as the third Dalai Lama).

17th century

Date Event
c. 1600-1700s When Vietnam divides during this period, the Nguyễn rulers of the south choose to support Mahayana Buddhism as an integrative ideology for the ethnically plural society of their kingdom, which is also populated by Chams and other minorities.
1614 The Toyotomi family rebuilds a great image of Buddha at the Temple of Hōkōji in Kyōtō.
1615 The Oirat Mongols convert to the Geluk school of Tibetan Buddhism.
1635 In Zanabazar, the first Jebtsundamba Khutughtu is born as a great-grandson of Abadai Khan of the Khalkha.
1642 Güüshi Khan of the Khoshuud donates the sovereignty of Tibet to the fifth Dalai Lama.

18th century

Date Event
1753 Sri Lanka reinstatement of monks ordination from Thailand - the Siyam Nikaya lineage.
1766–1767 In Thailand, many Buddhist texts are destroyed as the Burmese invade Ayutthaya.

19th century

Date Event
1802–1820 Nguyễn Ánh comes to the throne of the first united Vietnam; he succeeds by quelling the Tayson rebellion in south Vietnam with help from Rama I in Bangkok, then takes over the north from the remaining Trinh. After coming to power, he creates a Confucianist orthodox state and is eager to limit the competing influence of Buddhism. He forbids adult men to attend Buddhist ceremonies.
1820–1841 Minh Mạng reigns in Vietnam, further restricting Buddhism. He insists that all monks be assigned to cloisters and carry identification documents. He also places new restrictions on printed material and begins the persecution of Catholic missionaries and converts that his successors (not without provocation) continue.
1851–1868 In Thailand, King Mongkut—himself a former monk—conducts a campaign to reform and modernise the monkhood, a movement that has continued in the present century under the inspiration of several great ascetic monks from the northeast part of the country.
1860 In Sri Lanka, against all expectations, the monastic and lay communities bring about a major revival in Buddhism, a movement that goes hand in hand with growing nationalism; the revival follows a period of persecution by foreign powers. Since then, Buddhism has flourished, and Sri Lankan monks and expatriate lay people have been prominent in spreading Theravada Buddhism in Asia, the West, and even in Africa.
1879 A council is convened under the patronage of King Mindon of Burma to re-edit the Pali canon. The king has the texts engraved on 729 stones, which are then set upright on the grounds of a monastery near Mandalay.
1880 Madame Blavatsky and Colonel Olcott became the first Westerners to receive the refuges and precepts, the ceremony by which one traditionally becomes a Buddhist; thus Blavatsky was the first Western woman to do so.[19]
1882 Jade Buddha Temple is founded in Shanghai, China, with two Jade Buddha statues imported from Burma.
1884 Irish-born U Dhammaloka ordained in Burma; first named but not first known western bhikkhu.
1893 The World Parliament of Religions meets in Chicago, Illinois; Anagarika Dharmapala and Soyen Shaku attend.
1896 Using Fa Xian's records, Nepalese archaeologists rediscover the great stone pillar of Ashoka at Lumbini.
1899 Gordon Douglas is ordained in Myanmar; until recently thought to be the first Westerner to be ordained in the Theravada tradition.


See also

Notes

  1. Cousins, L.S. (1996); Buswell (2003), Vol. I, p. 82; and, Keown & Prebish (2004), p. 107. See also, Gombrich (1988/2002), p. 32: “…[T]he best we can say is that [the Buddha] was probably Enlightened between 550 and 450, more likely later rather than earlier."
  2. Williams (2000, pp. 6-7) writes: "As a matter of fact Buddhism in mainland India itself had all but ceased to exist by the thirteenth century CE, although by that time it had spread to Tibet, China, Japan, and Southeast Asia." [1] (Originally 1958), "Chronology," p. xxix: "c. 1000-1200: Buddhism disappears as [an] organized religious force in India." See also, Robinson & Johnson (1970/1982), pp. 100-1, 108 Fig. 1; and, Harvey (1990/2007), pp. 139-40.


Subnote


References

  1. Embree 1988.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Cousins 1996, pp. 57–63.
  3. Schumann 2003, p. 10-13.
  4. Prebish 2008, p. 2.
  5. Harvey, Peter (2013). An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pg. 88-90. Noting the date of seventy years after the passing of the Buddha, which, in the short chronology, would place the second council around 330 +/-20 years.
  6. Skilton, Andrew. A Concise History of Buddhism. 2004. p. 48
  7. Raychaudhuri, H. C.; Mukherjee, B. N. (1996), Political History of Ancient India: From the Accession of Parikshit to the Extinction of the Gupta Dynasty, Oxford University Press, pp. 204–209.
  8. Narain, A.K. (1957). The Indo-Greeks. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 124
  9. R.K. Sen (1895). "Origin of the Maurya of Magadha and of Chanakya". Journal of the Buddhist Text Society of India. The Society. pp. 26–32. 
  10. Geiger 2012.
  11. Baldev Kumar (1973). Exact source needed!
  12. 12.0 12.1 Buswell, Robert E. (1991). Tracing Back the Radiance: Chinul's Korean Way of Zen. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 5, 6. ISBN 0824814274. 
  13. "A brief History of Kung Fu". Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. 
  14. Canzonieri, Salvatore (February–March 1998). "History of Chinese Martial Arts: Jin Dynasty to the Period of Disunity". Han Wei Wushu. 3 (9). 
  15. [1] The Art of Shaolin Kung Fu: The Secrets of Kung Fu for Self-Defense, Health and Enlightenment by Grandmaster Wong Kiew Kit
  16. Lagerwey, John (2004). Religion and Chinese Society. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press. p. xviii. 
  17. Anne-Marie Blondeau, Yonten Gyatso, 'Lhasa, Legend and History,' in Françoise Pommaret(ed.) Lhasa in the seventeenth century: the capital of the Dalai Lamas, Brill Tibetan Studies Library, 3, Brill 2003, pp.15-38, pp15ff.
  18. "Abbess Nyodai's 700th Memorial". Institute for Medieval Japanese Studies. Retrieved April 10, 2012. 
  19. Current Perspectives in Buddhism: Buddhism today : issues & global dimensions, Madhusudan Sakya, Cyber Tech Publications, 2011, page 244


Sources

Printed sources

  • Buswell, Robert E., ed. (2003), Encyclopedia of Buddhism, MacMillan Reference Books, ISBN 978-0-02-865718-9 
  • Embree, Ainslie T. (ed.), Stephen N. Hay (ed.), Wm. Theodore de Bary (ed.), A.L. Bashram, R.N. Dandekar, Peter Hardy, J.B. Harrison, V. Raghavan, Royal Weiler, and Andrew Yarrow (1958; 2nd ed. 1988). Sources of Indian Tradition: From the Beginning to 1800 (vol. 1). NY: Columbia U. Press. ISBN 0-231-06651-1.
  • Gombrich, Richard F. (2002), Theravāda Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-07585-8 
  • Harvey, Peter (2012), An Introduction to Buddhism, Cambridge University Press (Kindle edition) 
  • Keown, Damien and Charles S Prebish (eds.) (2004). Encyclopedia of Buddhism (London: Routledge). ISBN 978-0-415-31414-5.
  • Robinson, Richard H. and Willard L. Johnson (1970; 3rd ed., 1982). The Buddhist Religion: A Historical Introduction (Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing). ISBN 0-534-01027-X.
  • Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge University Press 
  • Schumann, Hans Wolfgang (2003), The Historical Buddha: The Times, Life, and Teachings of the Founder of Buddhism, Motilal Banarsidass Press, ISBN 8120818172 
  • Wayman, Alex (1997), Untying the Knots in Buddhism: Selected Essays, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., ISBN 8120813219 
  • Williams, Paul (2002), Buddhist Thought (Kindle ed.), Taylor & Francis 
  • Williams, Paul (1989), Mahayana Buddhism: the doctrinal foundations, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-02537-0 

Web-sources


External links