Twenty-four non-concurrent formations

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Twenty-four formations not concurrent with mind (Skt. citta-viprayukta-saṃskāra; T. ldan min 'du byed nyi shu bzhi ལྡན་མིན་འདུ་བྱེད་ཉི་ཤུ་བཞི་) are identified in the Gateway to Knowledge (GTK). The Abhidharma-samuccaya (ADS) combines the first two factors (prāpti and aprāpti) for a total of twenty three factors.

According to the Gateway to Knowledge, these lists are not exclusive. The actual number of non-concurrent formations is beyond counting.[1]

This first set of fourteen factors are listed in both the Abhidharma-kosa and the Abhidharma-samuccaya (ADS), though the ADS combines the first two factors in this set (as prāpti).

1. prāpti (T. thob pa) - possession
2. aprāpti (T. ma thob pa) - dispossession
3. sabhāgatā (T. skal mnyam / ris mthun) - homogeneity, same status or similar class
4. asaṃjñāsamāpatti (T. 'du shes med pa'i snyoms 'jug) - meditative attainment of non-discernment
5. asaṃjñika (T. 'du shes med pa) - state of non-discernment
6. nirodhasāmapatti (T. 'gog pa'i snyoms 'jug) - meditative attainment of cessation
7. jīvitendriya (T. srog gi dbang po) - life-force
8-11. four characteristics of conditioned phenomena
8. jāti (T skye ba) - birth, origination
9. sthiti (T. gnas pa) abiding, continuance, maturation, etc.
10. jarā (T. rga ba) - aging, decay, senescence, etc.
11. anityatā (T. mi rtag pa) - impermanence, death, desinence
12-14. nouns, phrases and letters
12. nāma-kāya (T. ming gi tshogs) - nouns
13. pada-kāya (T. tshig gi tshogs) - phrases
14. vyañjana-kāya (T.yi ge'i tshogs) - letters

The remaining ten factors are listed in the Abhidharma-samuccaya, but are not found in the Abhidharma-kosa.[1]

  1. pṛthagjanatva (T. སོ་སོའི་སྐྱེ་བོ་ ) - ordinary person (GTK), status of an ordinary man (ADS)
  2. pravṛtti (T. འཇུག་པ་) - continuity (OA), regular sequence (GTK)
  3. pratiniyama (T. སོ་སོར་ངེས་པ་) - distinction (OA), definitive distinctiveness (GTK), diverse regularity (ADS)
  4. yoga (T. འབྱོར་འབྲེལ་བ་) - union (OA), connected link (GTK)
  5. java (T. མགྱོགས་པ་) - rapidity (OA), speed (GTK)
  6. anukrama (T. གོ་རིམ་) - sequence (OA, GTK), gradation (ADS)
  7. kāla (T. དུས་) - time
  8. deśa (T. ཡུལ་)- location (OA, GTK), orientation
  9. saṃkhyā (T. གྲངས་) - enumeration (OA), number (GTK, ADS)
  10. sāmagrī (T. ཚོགས་པ་) - assembly (OA), gathering (GTK)

Note that Ornament of Abhidharma (OA) and Science and Philosophy in the Indian Buddhist Classics identify only nine additional factors from the Abhidharma-samuccaya; these texts omit pṛthagjanatva.[2]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Mipham Rinpoche 2004, s.v. Formations.
  2. Thupten Jinpa 2017, s.v. Non-associated formative factors.


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