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The Vedas (/ˈvdəz ˈv-/; Sanskrit: वेद veda, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.[1][2] Hindus consider the Vedas to be apauruṣeya, which means "not of a man, superhuman"[3] and "impersonal, authorless".[4][5][6]


  1. see e.g. Radhakrishnan & Moore 1957, p. 3; Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and Upaniṣads", in: Flood 2003, p. 68; MacDonell 2004, pp. 29–39; Sanskrit literature (2003) in Philip's Encyclopedia. Accessed 2007-08-09
  2. Sanujit Ghose (2011). "Religious Developments in Ancient India" in Ancient History Encyclopedia.
  3. Vaman Shivaram Apte, The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary, see apauruSeya
  4. D Sharma, Classical Indian Philosophy: A Reader, Columbia University Press, ISBN , pages 196-197
  5. Jan Westerhoff (2009), Nagarjuna's Madhyamaka: A Philosophical Introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195384963, page 290
  6. Warren Lee Todd (2013), The Ethics of Śaṅkara and Śāntideva: A Selfless Response to an Illusory World, ISBN 978-1409466819, page 128

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