From Encyclopedia of Buddhism
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is a modified clone.
This article was imported from Wikipedia. We have made some changes, but we are still in the process of vetting this content.
Vetting Image fair use 60x35px.png

40% vetted by RW


Öndör Gegeen Zanabazar Jebtsundamba Khutuktu
Thangka depicting Zanabazar
Religion Buddhism
Denomination Tibetan Buddhism
Lineage Gelugpa (Yellow Hat)
Nationality Mongolian
Born Eshidorji
Yesönzüil, Övörkhangai, Mongolia
Died 1723
Beijing, Qing dynasty, China
Resting place Unknown
Religious career
Reincarnation Taranatha

Öndör Gegeen Zanabazar[lower-alpha 1], born Eshidorji,[lower-alpha 2] was the sixteenth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu[lower-alpha 3] and the first Bogd Gegeen, or supreme spiritual authority, of the Gelugpa (Yellow Hat) lineage of Tibetan Buddhism in Outer Mongolia.[2]

The son of a Mongol Tüsheet Khan, Zanabazar was declared spiritual leader of Khalkha Mongols by a convocation of nobles in 1639 when he was just four years old. The 5th Dalai Lama (1617–1682) later recognized him as the reincarnation of the Buddhist scholar Taranatha and bestowed on him the Sanskrit name Jñānavajra (Sanskrit: ज्ञानवज्र, Zanabazar in Mongolian) meaning "thunderbolt scepter of wisdom".[3] Over the course of nearly 60 years, Zanabazar advanced the Gelugpa school of Buddhism among the Mongols, supplanting or synthesizing Sakya or "Red Hat" Buddhist traditions that had prevailed in the area, while strongly influencing social and political developments in 17th century Mongolia.[4] His close ties with both Khalka Mongol leaders and the devout Kangxi Emperor facilitated the Khalkha's submission to Qing rule in 1691.

In addition to his spiritual and political roles, Zanabazar was a polymath – a prodigious sculptor, painter, architect, poet, costume designer, scholar, and linguist, who is credited with launching Mongolia's seventeenth century cultural renaissance. He is best known for his intricate and elegant Buddhist sculptures created in the Nepali-derived style, two of the most famous being the White Tara and Varajradhara, sculpted in the 1680s. To aid translation of sacred Tibetan texts, he created the Soyombo script from which sprang the Soyombo that later became a national symbol of Mongolia. Zanabazar used his artistic output to promote Buddhism among all levels of Khalkha society and unify Khalkha Mongol tribes during a time of social and political turmoil.[5]


Early life, 1635-1651

5th Dalai Lama

Zanabazar was born in 1635 in present-day Yesönzüil, Övörkhangai, Mongolia. Named Eshidorji at birth, he was the second son of the Tüsheet khan Gombodorj (1594-1655) and his wife, Khandojamtso.[6] Gombodorj, one of three Khalkha khans who could trace his lineage directly back to Genghis Khan, was the grandson of Abtai Sain Khan (1554-1588), who had first opened Khalkha Mongol lands to the spread of “Yellow Hat” or Gelugpa Tibetan Buddhism. In 1578 Abtai's uncle, Altan Khan, bestowed the Mongolian language title "Dalai Lama" on the Gelug leader Sonam Gyatso.[7]

Drepung Monastery

According to tradition, Zanabazar showed signs of advanced intelligence, linguistic abilities, and religious devotion from an early age. Miraculous incidents allegedly occurred during his youth and he was able to fully recite the Jambaltsanjod prayer (praise of Manjusri) at age three.[8] In 1639, an assembly of Khalkha nobles at Shireet Tsagaan nuur (75 km east of the former capital Karakorum) recognized Zanabazar as an Öndör Gegeen (high saint) and the Khalkh’s supreme religious leader, even though he was only four years old at the time.[9] They pledged their obedience, proclaiming him "He who brandishes the banner of the Sakyapa" school and "teacher of multitudes". The designation of supreme religious leader strengthened ties between Khalkha aristocracy and Tibetan Buddhist hierarchy, gave Khalkha nobility added religious legitimacy, and served as a rallying point for Khalkha tribal leaders, who that same year had forged an uneasy alliance with western based Oirat (Dzungar) Mongol tribes.[10]

Zanabazar establish his religious center in 1647, a traveling ger camp known as the “Monastery of the West” (Baruun Khüree), later renamed Shankh Monastery.[11] In 1649, Zanabazar was sent to Tibet to receive personal instruction from the 5th Dalai Lama and the 4th Panchen Lama at Drepung Monastery.[12] The Dalai Lama identified him as the reincarnation of the scholar Taranatha (1575–1634), who had led the rival Jonang school of Tibetan Buddhism until his death in Mongolia one year before Zanabazar's birth.[13] Taranatha was believed to be the 15th reincarnation (Khutuktu) of Jebtsundamba (one of the Buddha's original 500 disciples). Thus Zanabazar was recognized as the 16th reincarnation and he and his successors thereafter referred to as the Jebtsundamba Khutuktu. The Tibetan Buddhist hierarchy also granted him the additional title Bogd Gegeen, or "Highest Enlightened Saint", designating him the top-ranking Lama in Mongolia.[14]

Spiritual and temporal leadership, 1651-1686

Zanabazar statuette

Following his journeys to Tibet in 1651 and again in 1656, Zanabazar and his retinue of Tibetan lamas founded a series of Gelug-influenced monasteries, temples, and Buddhist shrines throughout Mongol territory, the most noteworthy being a stupa to house Taranatha's remains, the Saridgiin Monastery in the Khentii mountains (completed in 1680), and several movable temples which contained paintings, sculptures, wall hangings and ritual objects influenced by the Tibetan-Nepalese style and either imported from Tibet or produced by Zanabazar or his students.[15]

By the late 1650s, Zanabazar further solidified his spiritual and political authority over Khalkha tribal leaders. The gers he received as gifts from Khalkha nobles upon his election in 1639 became his Örgöö, his ambulatory palatial residence. Known as the Shira Busiin Ord (Yellow Screen Palace) - later called Urga by the Russians and Da Khuree or Ikh Khuree by Mongols - it would eventually become the Mongolian capital Ulaanbaatar after settling at its current location, near the confluence of the Selbe and Tuul rivers and beneath Bogd Khan Uul in 1778.[16] Zanabazar established seven aimags (monastic departments) to oversee his religious institutions; the Department of the Treasury, Department of Administration, Department of Meals, Department of the Honored Doctor, Department of Amdo, Department of Orlog and the Department of Khuukhen Noyon. His authority was further substantiated in 1658 when he presided over a convocation of nobles at Erdene Zuu and a year later he conferred titles on nobles at Olziit Tsagaan Nuur. Nevertheless, despite being recognized as the undisputed spiritual leader of the Kalkha,[17] Zanabazar's moral influence failed to overcome the Mongols’ traditional tribalism, both among various Khalkha tribes as well as the rivalry between the Khalkha and Oirat-Dzungar Mongols to the west.

Khalkha submission to Qing rule, 1686-1691

Kangxi Emperor

Zanabazar attempted to pacify the Dzungar leader Galdan Boshugtu Khan with gifts of his artwork and sacred texts. In 1686 he attended a peace conference at the behest of the Qing Emperor Kangxi to reach a reconciliation with the Dzungars. Despite these efforts, skirmishes and vendettas soon led to all-out war between the Dzungar and the Khalkha. As Galdan’s forces swept eastward into Khalka territory in 1688, Zanabazar and nearly 20,000 Khalkha refugees fled south into present day Inner Mongolia to seek the protection of the Qing Emperor. In pursuit, Dzungar forces pillaged Erdene Zuu and destroyed several monasteries built by Zanabazar. Under Zanabazar's authority, the three Khalkha rulers declared themselves Qing vassals at Dolon Nor (the site of Shangdu, the pleasure palace of the Yuan Emperors) in 1691, a politically decisive step that officially ended the last remnants of the Yuan dynasty and allowed the Qing to assume the mantle of the Genghisid khans, merging the Khalkha forces into the Qing army.[18] Motivated by the appeals of Zanabazar, whom he greatly admired,[19] as well as the threat posed by a strong, unified Mongol state under Dzungar rule, the Kangxi Emperor dispatched Qing armies north to subdue the Galdan's forces.

Final years and death, 1691-1723

Over the next decade, from 1691 to 1701, as Qing armies battled the Dzungars for control of Mongolia, Zanabazar remained in China, wintering in Beijing and passing his summers with the Kangxi Emperor at Jehol (Chengde) as his spiritual mentor.[17] He returned to Khalkha Mongolia only once during this period, in 1699, to attend the funeral of his elder brother, Tüsheet Khan Chankhuundorj. Kangxi designated Zanabazar “Da Lama”, “Great Lama”, and invited him on his pilgrimage to Wutaishan in 1698.[20] Under Zanabazar's tutelage, the intensity of the Kangxi emperor’s Buddhist devotion notably increased after 1701.[19]


In 1697, Qing forces decisively defeated Galdan at the Battle of Jao Modo.[21] At age 66, Zanabazar finally resettled in Khalkha Mongolia in 1701 to supervise restoration of the Erdene Zuu Monastery, destroyed in 1688 by Galdan's troops. Over the next several years he oversaw the building of several more Buddhist monasteries in Mongolia while travelling to Beijing annually to meet with the Qing Emperor.[22] The Kangxi Emperor died on December 20, 1722. Zanabazar immediately journeyed to Beijing to conduct Buddhist rites at Beijing’s Yellow Monastery (Huang si 黃寺). Zanabazar died himself (poisoned, some believe, by the new emperor[23]) in Beijing only a few months later, on February 18, 1723. He was 88 years old. His body was embalmed, returned to Mongolia and mummified. Kangxi’s son, the Yongzheng Emperor, ordered a Chinese-style monastery dedicated to Zanabazar’s main tutelary deity, Maitreya, to be built at the place where the lama’s traveling encampment had stood at the moment of the his death, pledging 100,000 liang of silver to the monastery’s construction, which was not completed until a year after his own death in 1736. Amarbayasgalant Monastery or “Monastery of Blessed Peace,” resembles Yongzheng’s own Yonghe Palace in Beijing. Zanabazar’s body was finally laid to rest there in 1779.

In 1937, Amarbayascalant Monastery was ransacked by Mongolian communists. Zanabazar’s remains were allegedly removed and burned in the hills nearby.[24]

Artistic works

Tövkhön Monastery

At his height, Zanabazar was recognized as a sculptor par excellence among the Buddhist countries of Asia and the greatest sculptor of Mongolia[25] and is sometimes referred to as the Michelangelo of Asia as he epitomized the Mongolian Renaissance. During his time in Tibet, Zanabazar came to admire the Nepali style of representational arts favored by the Gelug school [26] and it profoundly influenced his own artistic development and style. Upon his return from Tibet in 1651 and 1656, he revived the art of metal image making in Mongolia,[4] through carved images of various Buddhist gods from bronze or copper. By the 1670s and 1680s, he and his workshop of apprentices at Tövkhön Monastery were producing hundreds of artistic pieces used to populate the many monasteries and temples he founded [27] and by extension were seen as vehicles to spread Buddhism beyond the confines of court circles to the lay masses.[28] As his political influence grew, his artwork became a form of diplomacy,[27] used in negotiations with the Dzungar leader Galdan Boshugtu Khan and to gain the favor of the Kangxi emperor, paving the way for incorporation of outer Mongolia into Qing protectorate.[29]

Soyombo Script

The vast majority of Zanabazar’s artistic output came between his return from his first trip to Tibet in 1651 and the defeat of Khalkha armies by Dzungar Mongols in 1688.[30] His greatest masterworks, including “Varajradhara” , Green Tara, White Tara 1685,[27] Twenty One Taras, the Five Dhyani Buddhas, walking Maitreya and many others, were created in the mid 1680s at Tövkhön Monastery, his retreat outside of Erdene Zuu, originally called Bayasgalant Aglag Oron (Happy Secluded Place),[31] Zanabazar’s works testify to his exceptional skill of depicting feminine beauty as well as his unique aesthetic vision of human physical perfection.[4] His sculptures, portraying peaceful and contemplative female figures, are beautifully proportioned with facial features characterized by high foreheads, thin, arching eyebrows, high- bridged noses, and small, fleshy lips.[32] Especially beautiful are the faces of Zanabazar’s Buddhas and Bodhisattvas in deep meditation. Guided by desire to liberate the people from wrath, ignorance, lust, contempt and ill will – the five vices giving rise to all sins.

Zanabazar established unique features for Mongolian Buddhism including Tibetan influenced yet redesigned lama robes, reworked melodies for chanting, and modifications of traditional ceremonies either in the melodies or by the introduction of new prayer texts which he composed.[33]

In 1686 He designed the Soyombo script to facilitate cross translations between Mongolian, Tibetan, and Sanskrit. Today, the script is found mostly in historical texts and in religious and temple inscriptions. However, one special character of the script, the Soyombo symbol, later became a national symbol of Mongolia, and has appeared on the national flag since 1921, and on the Emblem of Mongolia since 1960, as well as money, stamps, etc.[34]

<templatestyles src="Gallery/styles.css" />


Zanabazar Museum

Today, Zanabazar is viewed as one of Mongolia's most prominent historical figures, celebrated for propagating Tibetan Buddhism throughout Mongolia while reshaping it to fit Mongolian sensibilities, thereby establishing for the Mongols a unique cultural identity.[35] His artistic works are generally regarded as the apogee of Mongolian aesthetic development and spawned a cultural renaissance among Mongols in the late 17th century. Even during the country's socialist era (1921-1991) he was acknowledged to be as a prominent scholar (his religious roles quietly discarded) and recognized for his artistic and cultural achievements.[36] As a political personality, however, socialist authorities portrayed Zanabazar as a traitor and deceiver of the masses,[37] responsible for the loss of Mongolian sovereignty to the Manchu.[36] In the post socialist era, however, there has been a reevaluation of his image to where his actions in negotiating the Khalkha's submission to the Qing are considered to have been in the long term interests of Mongolia,[36] and he is generally exonerated for his role in 1691.

In 1965, the Zanabazar Museum of Fine Arts was established in Ulaanbaatar, containing the largest collection of his works. Zanabazar Buddhist University was founded in 1970 in Ulaanbaatar and a major street Undur Gegen Zanabazar (Өндөр Гэгээн Занабазарын гудамж) is located in the center of the capital. In 2009 a genus of dinosaur Zanabazar, the remains of which were discovered in Mongolia, was named after him.[38]


  1. Mongolian: Өндөр Гэгээн Занабазар, ᠵᠠᠨᠠᠪᠠᠽᠠᠷ, Mongolian pronunciation: [ɵntr keγeɴ tsanβatsr] "High Saint Zanabazar"; 1635–1723[1]
  2. Mongolian: Ишдорж, Işdorj; Tibetan: ཡེ་ཤེས་རྡོ་རྗེWylie: ye shes rdo rje
  3. Mongolian: Жавзандамба хутагт/Jawzandamba xutagt, Tibetan: རྗེ་བཙུན་དམ་པ་ཧུ་ཐུག་ཐུ་Wylie: rje btsun dam pa hu thug tu) "reincarnation of Jebtsundamba"


  • Zolzaya, M. (2009). The teaching about violence of Undur Gegeen Zanabazar. The History of Mongolian Ethics. ISBN 978-99929-9914-1, Ulaanbaatar, Arvin Sudar,
  1. "Zanabazar, Aristocrat, Patriarch and Artist (1635-1723)", pp. 70–80 in The Dancing Demons of Mongolia, Jan Fontein; John Vrieze, ed.; V+K Publishng: Immerc. [1999]
  2. various (2007). World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia, Volume 2. Marshall Cavendish. p. 262. ISBN 0761476318. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  3. Martha, Avery (2003). The Tea Road: China and Russia Meet Across the Steppe. 五洲传播出版社. pp. 107–108. ISBN 7508503805. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Huntington, John C.; Bangdel, Dina; Thurman, Robert A. F. (2003). The Circle of Bliss: Buddhist Meditational Art (Illustrated ed.). Serindia Publications, Inc. p. 236. ISBN 1932476016. 
  5. Wallace, Vesna A. (2015). Buddhism in Mongolian History, Culture, and Society (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. xix. ISBN 0199958661. 
  6. Atwood, Christopher P. (2004). Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. Facts on File. p. 267. ISBN 0816046719. 
  7. Powers, John; Templeman, David (2012). Historical Dictionary of Tibet (illustrated ed.). Scarecrow Press. p. 112. ISBN 0810868059. 
  8. Butler, William Elliott (2014). -Unterwegs im Land der Nomaden. Trescher Verlag. p. 144. ISBN 3897942682. 
  9. Sanders, Alan J. K. (2010). Historical Dictionary of Mongolia (3, illustrated ed.). Scarecrow Press,. p. 769. ISBN 0810874520. 
  10. Wisotzki, Marion; von Waldenfels, Ernst; Käppeli, Erna (1982). -The Mongolian Legal System: Contemporary Legislation and Documentation. BRILL,. p. 3. ISBN 9024726859. 
  11. "Zanabazar". GRANDPOOHBAH'S BLOG. 
  12. Croner, Don. "The Life of Zanabazar — The First Bogd Gegen of Mongolia". Tibetan Mongolian Museum Society. Retrieved 22 May 2016. 
  13. Sanders, Alan J. K. (2010). Historical Dictionary of Mongolia (3, illustrated ed.). Scarecrow Press,. p. 405. ISBN 0810874520. 
  14. Wisotzki, Marion; von Waldenfels, Ernst; Käppeli, Erna (2014). -Unterwegs im Land der Nomaden. Trescher Verlag. p. 144. ISBN 3897942682. 
  15. Berger, Patricia Ann (2003). Empire of Emptiness: Buddhist Art and Political Authority in Qing China (Illustrated ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 24. ISBN 0824825632. 
  16. Kaplonski, Christopher (2004). Truth, History and Politics in Mongolia: Memory of Heroes. Routledge. p. 150. ISBN 1134396732. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 Wallace, Vesna A. (2015). Buddhism in Mongolian History, Culture, and Society (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 119. ISBN 0199958661. 
  18. J. Millward, Eurasian Crossroads:A history of Xinjiang, pg. 91
  19. 19.0 19.1 Berger, Patricia Ann (2003). Empire of Emptiness: Buddhist Art and Political Authority in Qing China (Illustrated ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 27. ISBN 0824825632. 
  20. Charleux, Isabelle (2015). Nomads on Pilgrimage: Mongols on Wutaishan (China), 1800-1940. BRILL,. ISBN 9004297782. 
  21. Atwood, Christopher P. (2004). Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. Facts on File. p. 194. ISBN 0816046719. 
  22. Lacaze, Gaëlle (2014). Mongolie: Pays d'ombres et de lumières. Editions Olizane. p. 127. ISBN 2880864054. 
  23. Atwood, Christopher P. (2004). Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. Facts on File. p. 272. ISBN 0816046719. 
  24. various. "Zanabazar Jebtsundampa Khutukhtu". Columbia. Retrieved 22 May 2016. 
  25. Berger, Patricia (1995). After Xanadu: the Mongol Renaissance of the 16th to 18th centuries. Thomas and Hudson, New York, ISBN 0-500-23705-0. 
  26. Berger, Patricia Ann (2003). Empire of Emptiness: Buddhist Art and Political Authority in Qing China (Illustrated ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 33. ISBN 0824825632. 
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 Berger, Patricia Ann (2003). Empire of Emptiness: Buddhist Art and Political Authority in Qing China (Illustrated ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 29. ISBN 0824825632. 
  28. Wallace, Vesna A. (2015). Buddhism in Mongolian History, Culture, and Society (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 122. ISBN 0199958661. 
  29. Berger, Patricia Ann (2003). Empire of Emptiness: Buddhist Art and Political Authority in Qing China (Illustrated ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 26. ISBN 0824825632. 
  30. Lacaze, Gaëlle (2014). Mongolie: Pays d'ombres et de lumières. Editions Olizane. p. 171. ISBN 2880864054. 
  31. Berger, Patricia Ann (2003). Empire of Emptiness: Buddhist Art and Political Authority in Qing China (Illustrated ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 28. ISBN 0824825632. 
  32. Bartholomew, Terese Tse (1995). Introduction to the art of Mongolia. 
  33. Majer, Zsuzsa. "Töwkhön, the Retreat of Öndör Gegeen Zanabazar as a Pilgrimage Site" (PDF). Retrieved 22 May 2016. 
  34. Atwood, Christopher P. "Soyombo script". Facts On File. Facts On File, Inc. Retrieved 16 March 2016. 
  35. Kaplonski, Christopher (2004). Truth, History and Politics in Mongolia: Memory of Heroes. Routledge. p. 159. ISBN 1134396732. 
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 Kaplonski, Christopher (2004). Truth, History and Politics in Mongolia: Memory of Heroes. Routledge. p. 146. ISBN 1134396732. 
  37. Kaplonski, Christopher (2004). Truth, History and Politics in Mongolia: Memory of Heroes. Routledge. p. 12. ISBN 1134396732. 
  38. Norell, M.A.; Makovicky, P.J.; Bever, G.S.; Balanoff, A.M.; Clark, J.M.; Barsbold, R.; Rowe, T. (2009). "A Review of the Mongolian Cretaceous Dinosaur Saurornithoides (Troodontidae: Theropoda)". American Museum Novitates. 3654: 63. doi:10.1206/648.1. 

Historical people list

Historical people

Main subcategories of People are: Historical people - Living people - All people - People categories ... (Is a bio not here, or minimal?)

Masao Abe Robert Baker Aitken Ron Allen (playwright) B. R. Ambedkar Ananda
Balangoda Ananda Maitreya Thero Angulimala Aniruddha Mahathera Anuruddha Nauyane Ariyadhamma Mahathera
Aryadeva Asai Ryōi Assaji Atiśa Nisthananda Bajracharya
Benimadhab Barua Joko Beck Sanjaya Belatthiputta Charles Henry Allan Bennett Hubert Benoit (psychotherapist)
John Blofeld Bodhidharma Edward Espe Brown Polwatte Buddhadatta Thera Buddhaghosa
Acharya Buddharakkhita Marie Byles Ajahn Chah Rerukane Chandawimala Thero Channa
Chokgyur Lingpa Edward Conze L. S. Cousins Brian Cutillo 1st Dalai Lama
2nd Dalai Lama 3rd Dalai Lama 4th Dalai Lama 5th Dalai Lama 6th Dalai Lama
7th Dalai Lama 8th Dalai Lama 9th Dalai Lama 10th Dalai Lama 11th Dalai Lama
12th Dalai Lama 13th Dalai Lama Bidia Dandaron Alexandra David-Néel Marian Derby
Devadatta U Dhammaloka K. Sri Dhammananda Dharmaditya Dharmacharya Dharmakirti
Dharmapala of Nalanda Anagarika Dharmapala Dharmottara Dignāga Dōgen
Dongchu Dongshan Liangjie Khakyab Dorje, 15th Karmapa Lama Rangjung Rigpe Dorje, 16th Karmapa Rangjung Dorje, 3rd Karmapa Lama
Heinrich Dumoulin Düsum Khyenpa, 1st Karmapa Lama Dzongsar Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö Walter Evans-Wentz Family of Gautama Buddha
Frederick Franck Gampopa Gelek Rimpoche Gö Lotsawa Zhönnu-pel Gorampa
Maha Pajapati Mahapajapati Mahapajapati Gotami Rita Gross Gurulugomi
Phagmo Drupa Dorje Gyalpo Tsangpa Gyare Gendun Gyatso Palzangpo Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso Dolpopa
Dolpopa Sherab Gyaltsen Gyeongbong Han Yong-un Thich Nhat Hanh Walisinghe Harischandra
Eugen Herrigel Ernő Hetényi Marie Musaeus Higgins Raicho Hiratsuka Shin'ichi Hisamatsu
Hsuan Hua Huiyuan (Buddhist) Christmas Humphreys K. N. Jayatilleke 2nd Jebtsundamba Khutughtu
9th Jebtsundamba Khutughtu Jeongang Kadawedduwe Jinavamsa Mahathera Ken Jones (Buddhist) David Kalupahana
Dainin Katagiri Katyayana (Buddhist) Bob Kaufman Kaundinya Jack Kerouac
Bogd Khan Khema Ayya Khema Dilgo Khentse Dilgo Khyentse
King Suppabuddha Jamgon Kongtrul Kukkuripa Kumar Kashyap Mahasthavir Kunkhyen Pema Karpo
Drukpa Kunley Trevor Leggett Arthur Lillie Karma Lingpa Robert Linssen
Longchenpa John Daido Loori Albert Low Luipa Taizan Maezumi
Mahakasyapa Mahākāśyapa Mahamoggallana Mahasi Sayadaw Jyotipala Mahathera
Nagasena Mahathera S. Mahinda Gunapala Piyasena Malalasekera Marpa Lotsawa Peter Matthiessen
Maudgalyayana Maya (mother of Buddha) Maya (mother of the Buddha) Gustav Meyrink Edward Salim Michael
Milarepa Mingun Sayadaw Sōkō Morinaga Hiroshi Motoyama Mun Bhuridatta
Myokyo-ni Nagarjuna Nagasena Soen Nakagawa Bhikkhu Nanamoli
Matara Sri Nanarama Mahathera Nanavira Thera Nanda Naropa Nichiren
Kitaro Nishida Gudō Wafu Nishijima Nyanaponika Nyanaponika Thera Nyanatiloka
Thothori Nyantsen Ōbaku Toni Packer Padmasambhava Sakya Pandita
Paramanuchitchinorot Pema Lingpa Prajñāvarman Punna Rāhula
Thotagamuwe Sri Rahula Thera Walpola Rahula Paul Reps Caroline Rhys Davids Sonam Rinchen (Buddhist geshe)
Hammalawa Saddhatissa Kazi Dawa Samdup Chatral Sangye Dorje Ajahn Sao Kantasīlo Sariputta
Sayadaw U Tejaniya Seongcheol Seungsahn Shantideva Shavaripa
Sheng-yen Zenkei Shibayama Takamaro Shigaraki Silabhadra Sīlācāra
Shin Maha Silavamsa Śrāvaka Subhashitaratnanidhi Subhuti Suddhodana
Śuddhodana D. T. Suzuki Shunryū Suzuki Taklung Thangpa Tashi Pal The ten principal disciples
Tiantong Rujing Tilopa Chögyam Trungpa Tsangnyön Heruka Yeshe Tsogyal
Upali Uppalavanna Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo Xuanzang Yasa
Yashodhara Yasodharā Linji Yixuan Zanabazar Śāriputra

This article uses material from Zanabazar on Wikipedia (view authors). License under CC BY-SA 3.0. Wikipedia logo