Four errors

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The four errors (Skt. catvāro viparyāsāḥ; T. phyin ci log pa bzhi), or four misapprehensions, are mistaking:

  1. the impermanent to be permanent,
  2. the painful to be pleasant,
  3. the dirty to be clean, and
  4. what has no self to have a self

These four errors are "often described in Buddhist canonical literature as the main underpinnings of sentient beings’ mistaken view of the world."[1]

The four errors are discussed extensively in the Abhidharma and also in the Aryadeva's Catuḥśataka, where each is treated in a separate chapter.[1]


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