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Kalpanā [alt. kapana] (T. rtog pa རྟོག་པ་; C. fenbie; J. funbetsu) is translated as "thought," "imagination," “conceptual construction,” “to conceptualize,” etc.
Kalpanā is often contrasted with direction perception (pratyaksa].
- vitarka - also translated as "rtog pa" in Tibetan; though vitrka has a more positive conotation (of investigating)
- Buswell, Robert E.; Lopez, Donald S. (2014), The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism, Princeton University