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kumārabhūta (T. gzhon nur gyur pa; C. tongzhen 童眞) is an epithet that is translated as "ever-youthful," "in the form of a prince," etc.[1][2]

This epithet is commonly applied to Mañjuśrī, in the form of Mañjuśrī Kumārabhūta, meaning "Youthful Mañjuśrī," "Princely Mañjuśrī," etc. It indicates that Mañjuśrī is always youthful in appearance.[1]

The 84000 glossary states:

[Mañjuśrī] is also known as Mañjuśrī Kumārabhūta. In Sanskrit, kumārabhūta is a separate word rather than a compound with his proper name. This means that it could be the second of his names, and it is glossed as meaning “always young.” Alternatively, it could be treated simply as an adjective, as in “the youthful Mañjuśrī.”[3]

The term kumārabhūta is also used to refer to:[1]

  • a young novice monk (sramenera)
  • an unmarried man over the age of eight
  • a bodhisattva

In Korea, the name Tongjin (the Korean translation for kumārabhūta) is used as an epithet for two different dharma protectors:[1]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Buswell & Lopez 2014, s.v. kumārabhūta.
  2. Kumarabhuta, Wisdom Library (wisdomlib.org)
  3. Internet-icon.svg gzhon nur gyur pa, Christian-Steinert Dictionary