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Anumāna (T. rjes dpag/rjes su dpag pa, རྗེས་དཔག་; C. biliang), or valid inference, is defined as "a state of mind that knows its own particular object, a hidden phenomenon to be proven, based on evidence in which the three modes are complete".[1]

According to Dignaga, anumāna is one of two forms of valid cognition (pramana), the other being direct perception (pratyakṣa).[2]


  1. Inference for oneself (svārthānumāna)
  2. Inference for others (parārthānumāna)


  1. dngos stobs (power of the thing)
  2. grags pa (known as)
  3. yid ches (belief, faith, trust)


  1. tshul gsum tshang ba'i rtags la brten nas rang yul lkog gyur gyi bsgrub bya rtogs pa'i blo
  2. Westerhoff 2018, Chapter 5.


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