Pañcaviṃśatisāhasrikā prajñāpāramitā

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Pañcaviṃśatisāhasrikā prajñāpāramitā. (T. Shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa stong phrag nyi shu lnga pa; C. Mohe bore boluomi jing; J. Maka hannya haramitsukyō; K. Maha panya paramil kyŏng 摩訶般若波羅蜜經). In English, “Perfection of Wisdom in Twenty-five Thousand Lines”.[1]

This text is one of the most important of the "large" prajnaparamita sutras.[1] Commentators have noted the similarity in structure between this sutra and the Abhisamayalankara.[1]

In the Tibetan tradition, this sutra is known as one of the so-called 'six mother scriptures' of the prajnaparamita.


The Padmakara Translation Group states:

The Perfection of Wisdom in 25,000 Lines is the second longest of the six ‘mother’ Prajñāpāramitā texts (yum drug). It comprises three entire volumes of the Kangyur (vols. 26-28) and is divided into 76 chapters relating dialogues between the Buddha and senior disciples, notably Śāriputra, Subhūti and Ānanda.

With some exceptions, the text parallels the structure of the other Perfection of Wisdom sūtras, especially the Prajñāpāramitā in 10,000 Lines, yet it has traditionally been regarded as more influential, analyzing the bodhisattvas’ transcendent perfections in considerably greater detail, and showing how bodhisattvas should practise them without ever considering either their practice, or any other phenomena whatsoever, as truly existing.

An original Sanskrit version found in Gilgit exists, as well as four distinct Chinese translations. There is also an important recast Sanskrit manuscript, possibly of 5th century origin, which divides the text according to the eight sections of Asaṅga-Maitreya’s famous treatise, the Abhisamayālaṃkāra. The Tibetan text dates from the 9th century. There are several important commentaries on the text in the Tengyur, by Haribhadra, Smṛtijñānakīrti, Vimuktasena and others.[2]


Indian commentaries

Notable Indian commentaries:[3]

Chinese commentaries



  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Robert E. Buswell Jr., Donald S. Lopez Jr., The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism (Princeton: 2014), s.v. Pañcaviṃśatisāhasrikāprajñāpāramitāsūtra
  2. 84000.png Padmakara Translation Group (2023), Prefection of Wisdom in Twenty-Five Thousand Lines, 84000 Reading Room
  3. RW icon height 18px.png Perfection of Wisdom Sutra in Twenty-five Thousand Lines, Rigpa Shedra Wiki

Further reading

  • Edward Conze, The Prajñāpāramitā Literature (1960)