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Saṃkliṣṭa [alt. saṃkleśika] (T. ཀུན་ནས་ཉོན་མོང་པ་ or ཀུན་ཉོན་, kun nas nyon mongs pa/kun nyon), thorough affliction, refers to the state of being dominated by the primary and secondary destructive emotions, which is another way of describing samsara.

In the context of the Four Noble Truths, saṃkliṣṭa is used to describe the truth of suffering and the truth of origination.[1]

According to Buswell, in the Prajnaparamita teachings, all dharmas (phenomena) are divided into:[1]

  • saṃkliṣṭa (the afflicted)
  • viśuddha (the pure)

The Tibetan commentary Garland of Radiant Light distinguishes between the characteristics of:[2]

  • saṃkliṣṭa (thorough affliction)
  • vyavadāna (complete purification)

Alternate translations

  • thorough affliction (Dharmachakra Translation Committee, Middle Beyond Extremes)
  • afflicted (Buswell)
  • defiled (Buswell)


  1. 1.0 1.1 Buswell & Lopez 2014, s.v. saṃkliṣṭa.
  2. Dharmachakra Translation Committee 2007, s.v. Chapter 1: The Characteristics.


  • Princeton Dict icon 166px.png Buswell, Robert E.; Lopez, Donald S. (2014), The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism, Princeton University 
  • Book icoline.svg Dharmachakra Translation Committee (2007), Middle Beyond Extremes: Maitreya's Madhyantavibhaga with Commentaries by Khenpo Shenga and Ju Mipham, Snow Lion Publications 

External links