vyavadāna (P. vodāna; Tib. རྣམ་བྱང་, rnam byang; C. jing) is translated as purification or complete purification.
- saṃkliṣṭa (thorough affliction)
- vyavadāna (complete purification)
According to Buswell, the term is also understood as purificaton, in the sense of the causation that leads to the end of suffering.
- complete purificaton (Dharmachakra Translation Committee, Middle Beyond Extremes)
- complete refinement
- purification (Buswell)
- cleansing (Buswell)
- Buswell, Robert E.; Lopez, Donald S. (2014), The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism, Princeton University
- Dharmachakra Translation Committee (2007), Middle Beyond Extremes: Maitreya's Madhyantavibhaga with Commentaries by Khenpo Shenga and Ju Mipham, Snow Lion Publications