Threefold training of learning, reflection and meditation

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The threefold training of learning, reflection and meditation (Skt. śruta cintā bhāvanā; Tib. ཐོས་བསམ་སྒོམ་གསུམ་, thos bsam sgom gsum) refers to three methods for generating prajñā (wisdom or discernment) that are identified in the Sanskrit Mahayana tradition.

The three methods of training in wisdom, or prajñā, are:[1]

  • śrutamayīprajñā - wisdom generated through learning (listening and studying)
  • cintāmayīprajñā - wisdom generated through reflection (or contemplation}
  • bhāvanāmayīprajñā - wisdom generated through meditation (and application)

Contemporary explanations

Dzogchen Ponlop states:

In the Buddhist path, we accumulate knowledge in three ways: through study, contemplation, and meditation. First, we gain intellectual knowledge, then we personalize it through reflecting on it, and then we go beyond that to a whole new state of knowing—one that’s free from reliance on reference points. That’s the nature of our journey. First, we’re handed a map and learn to read it; next, we’re on the road but still relying on our map for directions; finally, we realize we don’t need to look at the map anymore—we know it by heart. Our confidence doesn’t waver, whether we’re looking at the map or the road ahead; the map has dissolved into the landscape. That’s higher knowledge, or one way of looking at it.[2]

Khenpo Tsultrim Gyamtso states:

The whole of Buddhism is structured around this threefold training in listening, reflecting and meditating. While Buddhist scholars concentrate on studying or listening to the Buddha’s doctrine, the logicians study valid means of knowing and reasoning, the tools with which one reflects and is able to discern what is true and false. This corresponds to the stage of reflection. The yogins or meditators are those who have established through listening and reflection what must be the case and who are now engaged in training themselves in the art of abandoning their delusions. It is one thing to decide through reasoning what must be true and another actually to see the world in that way.
By relying on these three practices and using each to enhance the others, the fog of confusion and clouds of ignorance are removed; knowledge and understanding can then shine forth unimpeded, like the sun breaking through the mist at dawn.[3]

Andy Karr states:

It is said that studying the dharma without meditating is like trying to scale a rock face with no arms, while practicing meditation without studying is like trying to make a long journey without eyes. Contemplation is the bridge between intellect and insight, study and meditation. To bring all our resources to bear on the journey, we need to join the practices of study, contemplation, and meditation together like three strong locomotives pulling the train of our delusion to the destination of realization.[4]


In Explanation of the Ornament for the Mahāyāna Sūtras, Vasubandhu states:

Learning involves placing latent potencies in the mind; reflection involves bringing about realization; meditative cultivation involves bringing about pacification through calm abiding and complete realization through special insight.[5]

In the Abhidharma-kosa, Vasubandhu states:

Observing discipline, and having heard and contemplated the teachings,
One applies oneself intensively to meditation.[6]

Ashvaghosha said:

The man of little learning is as if born blind.
How can he meditate? On what can he reflect?
Study then with diligence, reflect and meditate;
Through this, vast wisdom will arise.[7]

Chökyi Drakpa states:

Through the wisdom that comes from hearing, you are able to recognize the disturbing emotions.
Then through the wisdom that comes from reflection, you are able to overcome the disturbing emotions temporarily.
And finally, through the wisdom that comes through meditation you conquer completely the enemy of negative emotions, and obtain the confidence of the inexpressible wisdom of discriminating awareness.[8]


  1. Buswell & Lopez 2014, s.v. bhāvanākrama.
  2. Dzogchen Ponlop 2010, s.v. "The Three Trainings".
  3. Khenpo Tsultrim Gyamtso Rinpoche 2016, Stage Two: Chittamatra, Mind Only.
  4. Karr 2007, Preface.
  5. Thupten Jinpa 2020, s.v. Mental factors with a determinate object.
  6. Abhidharma-kosa, VI, 5
  7. Treasury of Precious Qualities, p.246
  8. RW icon height 18px.png Three wisdom tools


Further reading