trividyā [alt. traividyā] (P. tevijjā; T. rig gsum; C. sanming 三明) is translated as "three knowledges," "one endowed with threefold (higher) knowledge," etc.
- the ability to remember one's former lives (pūrvanivāsānusmṛti)
- the divine eye (divyacakṣus)
- knowledge of "extinction of contaminants" (āsravakṣaya)
These three types of knowledge were obtained by the Buddha during the "three watches of the night" at the time of his awakening.
The three knowledges are mentioned in numerous discourses, such as the Maha-Saccaka Sutta (MN 36), in which the Buddha describes obtaining one of these knowledges on the first, second and third watches respectively of the night of his enlightenment.
- Nyanatiloka Thera 2019, s.v. te-vijjā.
- Buswell & Lopez 2014, s.v. trividyā.
- Note that:
- Thanissaro (1998). Other discourses that mention the three knowledges include the Tevijja Sutta (DN 13) and the Bhaya-bherava Sutta (MN 4).
- Buswell, Robert E.; Lopez, Donald S. (2014), The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism, Princeton University
- Nyanatiloka Thera (2019), Nyanaponika Thera, ed., Buddhist Dictionary: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines, Pariyatti Publishing
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1998). Maha-Saccaka Sutta: The Longer Discourse to Saccaka (excerpt) (MN 36), Dhammatalks.org