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Āpas (P. āpo; T. chu; C. shuida 水大) translates as water. It is also called āpodhātu (water element). It is identified as one of the four primary elements (mahābhūta).

Āpas (water) has the properties of fluidity and cohesion.

Pali tradition

A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma states:

The water element, or fluidity, is the material factor that makes different particles of matter cohere, thereby preventing them from being scattered about. Its characteristic is trickling or oozing, its function is to intensify the coexisting material states, and it is manifested as the holding together or cohesion of material phenomena.[1]

Sanskrit tradition

The Khenjuk states:

The water element is fluidity and [it's function is] cohesion.[2]


  1. Bhikkhu Bodhi 2000, s.v. The water element.
  2. Mipham Rinpoche 2004, s.v. The Aggregate of Forms.


External links

Rangjung a-circle30px.jpg chu, Rangjung Yeshe Wiki Rangjung a-circle30px.jpg Water_Element, Rangjung Yeshe Wiki