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śabda (P. sadda; T. sgra སྒྲ་; C. sheng 聲) is translated as "sounds," "auditory objects," etc.

Śabda (sounds) are the objects of the ear faculty, and are cognized by the ear consciousness.

Śabda (sounds) are identified as:

The Khenjuk states:

Sounds are the sense objects of the ear. There are different kinds: sounds that originate from conscious elemental causes such as the voice of a sentient being or a finger snap; sounds that originate from unconscious elemental causes such as the sounds of a river, the wind and so forth; sounds that originate from both [conscious and unconscious elements] such as a drum beat; animate sounds that express meaning; and inanimate sounds that don't express meaning. Sounds that express meaning can be either spoken by a mundane person or by a noble person.
Sounds can also be divided into pleasant, unpleasant and neutral.[1]

In pramana theory, the term śabda refers to "testimony" of a reliable source of knowledge. See Śabda (pramana).


  1. Mipham Rinpoche 2004, s.v. "The Aggregate of Forms".