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saṃskṛta (P. saṅkhata; T. 'dus byas འདུས་བྱས་; C. youwei 有爲) is translated as "conditioned," "compounded," "composite," etc., is a term that describes all impermanent phenomena (dharmas) – that is, all phenomena that are:

  • produced through causes and conditions
  • have the nature of arising, remaining and ceasing
  • are subsumed by the five aggregates

The Khenjuk states:

A conditioned thing is a thing which is created through causes and conditions. Its nature has arising, remaining and ceasing. Its defining characteristic (lakṣaṇa) is all phenomena subsumed by the five aggregates.[1][2]

Noa Ronkin states:

Conditioned dhammas arise and cease subject to numerous causes and conditions and constitute sentient experience in all realms of the round of rebirth (saṃsāra).[3]

Conditioned and unconditioned

In the Sanskrit tradition, all knowable things can be categorized as "the conditioned and unconditioned" (saṃskṛta-asaṃskṛta).


David Karma Choephel states:

The English words compound and composite are closer to the literal meaning of the Sanskrit saMskAra and Tibetan 'dus byas. The word conditional is derived from the explanation the Buddha gave in the sutras that was repeated in the treatises. In Master Vasubandhu's words, "Those which are made by conditions coming together and meeting are composites. There is nothing at all produced by a single condition."[4]

Alternative translations

  • Conditioned
  • Compounded
  • Composite

See also


  1. RW icon height 18px.png Conditioned, Rigpa Shedra Wiki
  2. Mipham Rinpoche 2002, s.v. Chapter 22.
  3. Ronkin (2022)
  4. Rangjung a-circle30px.jpg 'dus_byas, Rangjung Yeshe Wiki


Further Reading

  • S. Goodman, "The Conditioned and Unconditioned" Chapter of Mi-pham rgya mtsho's mkhas-pa'i tshul-la 'jug-pa'i sgo, M.A Thesis, University of Saskatchewan, 1979

External links