Seven factors of enlightenment

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The seven aspects of enlightenment (Skt. sapta bodhyaṅga; P. satta bojjhaṅgā; T. byang chub kyi yan lag bdun བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་ཡན་ལག་བདུན་; C. juezhi/qijuezhi 覺支/七覺支) are:

This group of seven factors is one of "seven sets" of the thirty-seven factors of enlightenment.

Sanskrit tradition

The Garland of Radiant Light states:

The seven aspects of enlightenment (bodhi) are mindfulness, fully discerning phenomena, diligence, joy, agility, meditative absorption, and equanimity.
  • The knowledge that fully discerns phenomena (dharmapravicaya) is referred to as the aspect of nature, owing to the fact that the knowledge that perceives the truth of the intrinsic nature is the essence of the path of seeing. Therefore, it is referred to as the essence, or nature, of enlightenment.
  • Mindfulness (smṛti) is the aspect of the basis of enlightenment because it is the basis of good qualities.
  • Diligence (vīrya) is the aspect of definitive emergence because it allows one to transcend the conflicting factors.
  • Joy (pīti) is the aspect of benefit, the desirable quality that is obtained by [practicing] the paths.
  • Agility (praśrabdhi), meditative absorption (samādhi), and equanimity (upekṣā) are aspects that are free from affliction. To elaborate, agility is taught to be the foundation for freedom from affliction; meditative absorption, the state of freedom from affliction; and equanimity, the essential nature of freedom from affliction.[1]

Pali tradition

Bhikkhu Bodhi states:

There are seven factors of enlightenment (bodhi): the enlightenment factors of (1) mindfulness, (2) investigation of states, (3) energy, (4) zest, (5) tranquillity, (6) concentration, (7) equanimity.
Among the seven factors of enlightenment, investigation of states (dhammavicaya) is a designation for wisdom (paññā), insight into mental and material phenomena as they really are. Tranquillity (passaddhi) means tranquillity both of consciousness and of the mental body (see II, §5). Equanimity (upekkhā) here means mental neutrality (tatramajjhattatā), one of the universal beautiful cetasikas, not neutral feeling. The three factors of investigation, energy (vīrya), and zest (pīti) are opposed to mental sluggishness; the three factors of tranquillity, concentration (samādhi), and equanimity counteract mental excitation. Mindfulness (sati) assures that the two groups occur in balance, neither exceeding the other.[2]


The Pali word bojjhanga is a compound of bodhi ("enlightenment") and anga ("factor").[3]


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  1. Dharmachakra Translation Committee 2007, s.v. The Four Bases of Miraculous Power.
  2. Bhikkhu Bodhi 2000, s.v. Seven Factors of Enlightenment.
  3. For instance, see Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 490, entry for "Bojjhanga" (retrieved 10 Jul 2007).


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