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Translations of
English carefulness,
conscious awareness
Pali appamada
Sanskrit apramada, apramāda
Chinese 不放逸(T) / 不放逸(S)
Korean 불방일
(RR: bulbangil)
Tibetan བག་ཡོད་པ།
(Wylie: bag yod pa;
THL: bakyö pa

Apramada (Sanskrit, also apramāda; Pali: appamada; Tibetan Wylie: bag yod pa) is a Buddhist term translated as "conscientious" or "concern". It is defined as taking great care concerning what should be adopted and what should be avoided.[1][2]

It is identified as:


The Abhidharma-samuccaya states:[1]

What is concern? From taking its stand on non-attachment (alobha), non-hatred (adveṣa), and non-deludedness (amoha) coupled with diligence (vīrya), it considers whatever is positive and protects the mind against things which cannot satisfy. Its function is to make complete and to realize all worldly and transworldly excellences.

Alexander Berzin states:[3]

A caring attitude (bag-yod, carefulness) is a subsidiary awareness that, while remaining in a state of detachment, imperturbability, lack of naivety, and joyful perseverance, causes us to meditate on constructive things and safeguards against leaning toward tainted (negative) things. In other words, being disgusted with and not longing for compulsive existence, not wanting to cause harm in response to its suffering, not being naive about the effects of our behavior, and taking joy in acting constructively, a caring attitude brings us to act constructively and to refrain from destructive behavior. This is because we care about the situations of others and ourselves and about the effects of our actions on both; we take them seriously.

Robert Thurman emphasizes the high degree of apramada of someone who has realized emptiness (a.k.a. "voidness"):[4]

This denotes a type of awareness of the most seemingly insignificant aspects of daily life, an awareness derived as a consequence of the highest realization of the ultimate nature of reality. As it is stated in the Anavataptaparipṛcchasutra: "He who realizes voidness, that person is consciously aware." "Ultimate realization," far from obliterating the relative world, brings it into highly specific, albeit dreamlike, focus.

This term is described at length in chapter four of the Bodhicharyavatara.

Alternate translations

  • A caring attitude (Alexander Berzin)
  • Carefulness (Alexander Berzin)
  • Conscious awareness (Robert Thurman)
  • Conscientiousness
  • Concern (Herbert Guenther)
  • Prudent

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 Guenther (1975), Kindle Locations 634-635.
  2. Kunsang (2004), p. 24.
  3. Berzin (2006)
  4. Thurman (2008), p. 158.


  • Berzin, Alexander (2006), StudyBuddhism icon 35px.png Primary Minds and the 51 Mental Factors, StudyBuddhism
  • Guenther, Herbert V. & Leslie S. Kawamura (1975), Mind in Buddhist Psychology: A Translation of Ye-shes rgyal-mtshan's "The Necklace of Clear Understanding". Dharma Publishing. Kindle Edition.
  • Kunsang, Erik Pema (translator) (2004). Gateway to Knowledge, Vol. 1. North Atlantic Books.
  • Thurman, Robert (2008), The Holy Teaching of Vimalakirti, Pennsylvania State University

External links

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