Ten bhumis

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The ten bhumis (Skt. daśabhūmi; T. sa bcu ས་བཅུ་; C. shi di 十地) are also known as the "ten grounds," "ten bodhisattva grounds," "ten stages," etc. These are ten stages in the path of the bodhisattva, according to the Dasabhumika-sutra of the Sanskrit Mahayana tradition.

Buddhism: One Teacher, Many Traditions states:

Spread over the bodhisattva paths of seeing and meditation are ten bodhisattva grounds. These ten are ultimate bodhicitta—unpolluted wisdom directly realizing the emptiness of inherent existence. This wisdom is conceptually divided into its earlier and later moments, forming these ten grounds. However, not every instance of a ground is ultimate bodhicitta; ārya bodhisattvas also meditate on conventional bodhicitta and engage in practices to create merit.
The ten grounds are differentiated by four features: (1) Each successive ground has a greater number of twelve sets of good qualities. These twelve qualities include seeing buddhas, receiving their inspiration, going to pure lands, having long lives, ripening sentient beings, and emanating bodies. (2) Each successive ground has greater power to eradicate obscurations and advance to a higher path. (3) Each ground has its own surpassing perfection that refines bodhisattvas’ body, speech, and mind. (4) On each successive ground, bodhisattvas are able to take higher rebirths in which they have more power to benefit sentient beings.
Bodhisattvas finish eliminating afflictive obscurations at the beginning of the eighth ground. They finish eliminating cognitive obscurations at the end of the tenth ground and become buddhas in the very next moment.[1]

The ten grounds are:[2][3][4]

  1. Joyous (pramuditā)
  2. Stainless (vimalā)
  3. Luminous (prabhākarī)
  4. Radiant (arciṣmatī)
  5. Hard to Conquer (sudurjayā)
  6. Clearly Manifest (abhimukhī)
  7. Far Progressed/Reaching (dūraṅgamā)
  8. Immovable (acalā)
  9. Perfect Intellect (sādhuṃatī)
  10. Cloud of Dharma (dharmameghā)


  1. Dalai Lama & Thubten Chodron 2014, s.v. Chapter 10.
  2. Buswell & Lopez 2014, s.v. daśabhūmi.
  3. Patrul Rinpoche, LotsawaHouse-tag.png A Brief Guide to the Stages and Paths of the Bodhisattvas, Lotsawa House
  4. Sutra Translation Committee of the United States and Canada (1998), The Seeker's Glossary of Buddhism, Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc., 2nd ed. pp.759-760



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