Formations that are not concurrent with mind

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Formations that are not concurrent with mind (S. cittaviprayuktasaṃskāra; T. sems dang ldan pa ma yin pa’i ’du byed; C. xin buxiangying fa 心不相應法) are identified in the Sanskrit Abhidharma tradition as formations that are not mental factors. "Because they are in the aggregate of formation, they are called formations. Because they are not mental factors and hence are not concurrent with mind, they are called non-concurrent."[1]

In the Tibetan tradition, these factors are commonly referred to by the shorter name of non-concurrent formations (S. viprayukta saṃskāra; T. ldan min 'du byed).[1]

Lists of formations not concurrent with mind

Alternative Translations

  • Formations that are not concurrent with mind (Rangjung Yeshe Wiki, David Karma Choephel)
  • conditioned forces dissociated from thought (Buswell)[2]
  • elements neither substantial forms nor mental functions


  1. 1.0 1.1 Rangjung a-circle30px.jpg ldan_min_'du_byed
  2. Princeton Dict icon 166px.png Robert E. Buswell Jr., Donald S. Lopez Jr., The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism (Princeton: 2014), s.v. cittaviprayuktasaṃskāra

Further Reading

  • Book icoline.svg Thupten Jinpa (editor), Ian James Coghlan (translator), Science and Philosophy in the Indian Buddhist Classics, Volume 1: The Physical World (Wisdom: 2017), 141-150
  • Erik Pema Kunsang (translator), Light of Wisdom, Volume 1 (Rangjung Yeshe Publications: 1999), pages 184-185.